非密封放射源工作场所分类
发布时间:2017-06-28  作者:  浏览次数:

 

根据《电离辐射防护与辐射源安全基本标准》(GB18871-2002)和《关于发布放射源分类办法的公告》(国家环境保护总局公告2005年第62号)的规定,非密封源工作场所按放射性核素日等效最大操作量的大小分为甲、乙、丙三级。

非密封源工作场所的分级

  

日等效最大操作量/Bq

4×109

2×107-4×109

豁免活度值以上-2×107

:甲级非密封源工作场所的安全管理参照Ⅰ类放射源;

乙级非密封源工作场所的安全管理参照Ⅱ类放射源;

丙级非密封源工作场所的安全管理参照Ⅲ类放射源;

放射性核素的日等效操作量的计算

放射性核素的日等效操作量等于放射性核素的实际日操作量(Bq)与该核素毒性组别修正因子的积除以与操作方式有关的修正因子所得的商。 

放射性核素的毒性组别修正因子及操作方式有关的修正因子分别见表1和表2。放射性核素的毒性分组见附录。

1  放射性核素毒性组别修正因子

   

毒性组别修正因子

极毒

10

高毒

1

中毒

0.1

低毒

0.01

2  操作方式与放射源状态修正因子

操作方式

放射源状态

表面污染水平较低的固体

液体,溶液,悬浮液

表面有污染的固体

气体,蒸汽,粉末,压力很高的液体,固体

源的贮存

1000

100

10

1

很简单的操作

100

10

1

0.1

简单的操作

10

1

0.1

0.01

特别危险的操作

1

0.1

0.01

0.001

附录

放射性核素的毒性分组

1、极毒组:

148Gd210Po223Ra224Ra225Ra226Ra228Ra225Ac227Ac227Th228Th229Th230Th231Pa230U232U233U234U236Np(T11.15×105a)236Pu238 Pu239 Pu 240Pu242Pu241Am 242mAm243 Am240Cm242Cm243Cm244Cm245Cm246Cm248Cm250Cm247Bk248Cf249Cf250Cf251Cf252Cf254Cf253Es254Es257Fm258Md

2、高毒组

10Be32Si44Ti60Fe60Co90Sr94Nb106Ru108mAg113mCd126Sn144Ce146Sm150Eu(T1=34.2a)152Eu154Eu158Tb166mHo172Hf178mHf194Os192mIr210Pb210Bi210mBi212Bi213Bi211At224Ac226Ac228Ac226Th227Pa228Pa230Pa236U237Np241Pu244Pu241Cm247Cm249Bk246Cf253Cf254mEs252Fm253Fm254Fm255Fm257Md

属于这一毒性组的还有如下气态或蒸汽态放射性核素:

126I193mHg194Hg

3、中毒组

22Na24Na28Mg26Al32P33P35S(无机)36Cl45Ca47Ca44mSc46Sc47Sc48Sc48V52Mn54Mn52Fe55Fe59Fe55Co56Co57Co58Co56Ni57Ni63Ni66Ni67Cu62Zn65Zn69mZn72Zn66Ga67Ga72Ga68Ge69Ge77Ge71As72As73As74As76As77As75Se76Br82Br83Rb84Rb86Rb82Sr83Sr85Sr89Sr91Sr92Sr86Y87Y88Y90Y91Y93Y86Zr88Zr89Zr95Zr97Zr90Nb93mNb95Nb95mNb96Nb90Mo93Mo99Mo95mTc96Tc97mTc103Ru99Rh100Rh101Rh102Rh102mRh105Rh100Pd103Pd109Pd105Ag106mAg110mAg111Ag109Cd115Cd115mCd111In114mIn113Sn117mSn119mSn121mSn123Sn125Sn120Sb(T1=5.76d)122Sb124Sb125Sb126Sb127Sb128Sb(T1=9.01h)129Sb121Te121mTe123mTe125mTe127mTe129mTe131mTe132Te124I125I126I130I131I133I135I132Cs134Cs136Cs137Cs128Ba131Ba133Ba140Ba137La140La134Ce135Ce137mCe139Ce141Ce143Ce142Pr143Pr138Nd147Nd143Pm144Pm145Pm146Pm147Pm148Pm148mPm149Pm151Pm145Sm151Sm153Sm145Eu146Eu147Eu148Eu149Eu155Eu156Eu157Eu146Gd147Gd149Gd151Gd153Gd159Gd149Td151Td154Td156Td157Td160Td161Td159Dy166Dy166Ho169Er172Er167Tm170Tm171Tm172Tm166Yb169Yb175Yb169Lu170Lu171Lu172Lu173Lu174Lu174mLu177Lu177mLu170Hf175Hf179mHf181Hf184Hf179Ta182Ta183Ta184Ta188W181Re182Re(T1=2.67d)184Re184mRe186Re188Re189Re182Os185Os191Os193Os186Ir(T1=15.8h)188Ir189Ir190Ir192Ir193mIr194Ir194mIr188Pt200Pt194Au195Au198Au198mAu199Au200mAu193mHg(无机)194Hg195mHg(无机)197Hg(无机)197mHg(无机)203Hg204Tl211Pb212Pb214Pb203Bi205Bi206Bi207Bi214Bi207At222Fr223Fr227Ra231Th234ThTh天然232Pa233Pa234Pa231U237U240UU天然234Np235Np236Np(T2=22.5h)238Np239Np234Pu237Pu245Pu246Pu240Am242Am244Am238Cm245Bk246Bk250Bk244Cf250Es251Es

属于这一毒性组的还有如下气态或蒸汽态放射性核素:

14CC35S256Ni(羰基)、57Ni(羰基)、63Ni(羰基)、65Ni(羰基)、66Ni(羰基)、103RuO4106RuO4121Te121mTe123mTe125mTe127mTe129mTe131mTe132Te120I124I124I(甲基)125I125I(甲基)、126I(甲基)、130I130I(甲基)、131I131I(甲基)、132I132mI133I133I(甲基)135I135I(甲基)、193Hg195Hg195mHg197Hg197mHg203Hg

4、低毒组

7Be18F31Si38Cl39Cl40K42K43K44K45K41Ca43Sc44Sc49Sc45Ti47V49V48Cr49Cr51Cr51Mn52mMn53Mn56Mn58mCo60mCo61Co62mCo59Ni65Ni60Cu61Cu64Cu63Zn69Zn71mZn65Ga68Ga70Ga73Ga66Ge67Ge71Ge75Ge78Ge69As70As78As70Se73Se73mSe79Se81Se81mSe83Se74Br74mBr75Br77Br80Br80mBr83Br84Br79Rb81Rb81mRb82mRb87Rb88Rb89Rb80Sr81Sr85mSr87mSr86mY90mY91mY92Y94Y95Y93Zr88Nb89Nb(T1=2.03h)89Nb(T2=1.10h)97Nb98Nb93mMo101Mo93Tc93mTc94Tc94mTc95Tc96mTc97Tc98Tc99Tc99mTc101Tc104Tc94Ru97Ru105Ru99mRh101mRh103mRh106mRh107Rh101Pd107Pd102Ag103Ag104Ag104mAg106Ag112Ag115Ag104Cd107Cd113Cd117Cd117mCd109In110In(T1=4.90h)110In(T2=1.15h)112In113mIn115In115mIn116mIn117In117mIn119mIn110Sn111Sn121Sn123mSn127Sn128Sn115Sb116Sb116mSb117Sb118mSb119Sb120Sb(T2=0.265h)124mSb126mSb128Sb(T2=0.173h)130Sb131Sb116Te123Te127Te129Te131Te133Te133mTe134Te120I120mI121I123I128I129I132I132mI134I125Cs127Cs129Cs130Cs131Cs134mCs135Cs135mCs138Cs126Ba131mBa133mBa135mBa139Ba141Ba142Ba131La132La135La138La141La142La143La137Ce136Pr137Pr138mPr139Pr142mPr144Pr145Pr147Pr136Nd139Nd139mNd141Nd149Nd151Nd141Pm150Pm141Sm141mSm142Sm147Sm155Sm156Sm150Eu(T2=12.6h)152mEu158Eu145Gd152Gd147Tb150Tb153Tb155Tb156mTb(T1=1.02d)156mTb(T2=5.00h)155Dy157Dy165Dy155Ho157Ho159Ho161Ho162Ho162mHo164Ho164mHo167Ho161Er165Er171Er162Tm166Tm173Tm175Tm162Yb167Yb177Yb178Yb176Lu176mLu178Lu178mLu179Lu173Hf177mHf180mHf182Hf182mHf183Hf172Ta173Ta174Ta175Ta176Ta177Ta178Ta180Ta180mTa182mTa185Ta186Ta176W177W178W179W181W185W187W177Re178Re182Re(T2=12.7h)186mRe187Re188mRe180Os181Os189mOs191mOs182Ir184Ir185Ir186Ir(T2=1.75h)187Ir190mIr(T2=3.10h)190mIr(T2=1.20h)195Ir195mIr186Pt189Pt191Pt193Pt193mPt195mPt197Pt197mPt199Pt193Au200Au201Au193Hg193mHg(有机)195Hg195mHg(有机)197Hg(有机)197mHg(有机)199mHg194Tl194mTl195Tl197Tl198Tl198mTl199Tl200Tl201Tl202Tl195mPb198Pb199Pb200Pb201Pb202Pb202mPb203Pb205Pb209Pb200Bi201Bi202Bi203Po205Po207Po232Th235U238U239U232Np233Np240Np235Pu243Pu237Am238Am239Am244mAm245Am246Am246mAm249Cm

属于这一毒性组的还有如下气态或蒸汽态放射性核素:

3H(元素)3H(氚水)3H(有机结合氚)3H(甲烷氚)11C11CO214CO211CO14CO35SO237Ar39Ar41Ar59Ni74Kr76Kr77Kr79Kr81Kr83mKr85Kr85mKr87Kr88Kr94RuO497RuO4105RuO4116Te123Te127Te129Te131Te133Te133mTe134Te120I(甲基)120mI120mI(甲基)121I121I(甲基)123I123I(甲基)128I128I(甲基)129I129I(甲基)132I(甲基)132mI(甲基)134I134I(甲基)120Xe121Xe122Xe123Xe125Xe127Xe129mXe131mXe133mXe133Xe135mXe135Xe138Xe199mHg

注:

1.1 本核素毒性分组清单中有10个核素具有2个半衰期。其中6个因其2个半衰期(T1T2)相差悬殊而被分列入不同的毒性组别;另有4个具有2个半衰期的核素,因其半衰期相差不大而被列在同一毒性组别,它们是89Nb110In156mTb190mIr

2.2 汞分无机汞和有机汞,共有9个核素。其中5个(193Hg194Hg195Hg199mHg203Hg),其无机和有机形态属同一毒性组别;另外4个(193mHg195mHg197Hg197mHg)则不同。

 

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